OPEN LEARNING: KEY FOUNDATIONS OF PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
Abdullah Alenezi ,Northern Borders University, Saudi Arabia
The concept of open education is one of the concepts that have taken a clear place on the academic map of higher education in many countries of the world. This type of education has become an important resource for universities to overcome many of the material and academic problems. The aim of this study is to analyse the role of open learning as the key foundations of personal learning environment. The interview respondents were nine teachers who are currently working with different open learning programs in Saudi Arabia. The nine teachers were from three different institutes in Saudi Arabia. It was identified through the interviews that the emergence of Open Textbooks, which is part of the broader movement known as Open Learning Resources, can help meet these challenges and improve the quality of the learning process. Higher textbooks for higher education students, especially middle school students, In the beginning of the last decade in the Saudi Arabia, to what is known as the "crisis of the textbook" and tried to solve many solutions to address the problem, such as the rental of the book to the student and the adoption of e-book and others, but the most prominent solutions are effective and impact, the emergence of non-profit organizations in cooperation.
Open learning, Saudi Arabia, e-learning
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LEARNING CROSS-LINGUAL WORD EMBEDDINGS WITH UNIVERSAL CONCEPTS
Pezhman Sheinidashtego1 and Aibek Musaev1 , 1University of Alabama, Alabama
Recent advances in generating monolingual word embeddings based on word co-occurrence for universal languages inspired new efforts to extend the model to support diversified languages. State-of-the-art methods for learning cross-lingual word embeddings rely on the alignment of monolingual word embedding spaces. Our goal is to implement a word co-occurrence across languages with the universal concepts’ method. Such concepts are notions that are fundamental to humankind and are thus persistent across languages, e.g., a man or woman, war or peace, etc. Given bilingual lexicons, we built universal concepts as undirected graphs of connected nodes and then replaced the words belonging to the same graph with a unique graph ID. This intuitive design makes use of universal concepts in monolingual corpora which will help generate meaningful word embeddings across languages via the word cooccurrence concept. Standardized benchmarks demonstrate how this underutilized approach competes SOTA on bilingual word sematic similarity and word similarity relatedness tasks.
Word Embedding Model, NLP, Word Embedding Evaluation Tasks, Universal Concepts, & Bilingual and Cross-lingual Word Embeddings.
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